Prostatic disease can occur in both canine and feline males, though is much more common in canines. The prostate is an accessory sex gland and is located near the bladder, encompassing the urethra. As the animal matures the prostate increases in size and weight. Clinical diseases associated with the prostate include hyperplasia, cysts or abscesses, prostatisis (inflammation), or neoplasia.
Clinical signs of prostate disease are similar regardless of the underlying cause and include frequent urination, urethral discharge, pain, vomiting, bloody urine, and/or lethargy.
Diagnosis of prostate disease begins with a physical and rectal examination, ultrasound and/or biopsy.
Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the underlying cause of the prostatic disease. Hyperplasia is treated with castration has a good prognosis to return to normal. Prostatitis is treated with antibiotic therapy with castration considered to be beneficial. Prostatic abscesses are treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical draining, castration is performed at the time of surgery. Prostatic neoplasia is uncommon but can occur, with the majority of prostatic neoplasia being malignant with poor response to treatment.